Lymphocyte Count

Definition - What does Lymphocyte Count mean?

Lymphocyte count is the cumulative number of leukocytes circulating in the blood based on a measurement between the white blood cell count and its corresponding lymphocyte percentage to determine relative immunity levels. Lymphocytes are composed of B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells (NK), protecting the body against foreign substances including antigens, cancer cells, microbes, and pathogens.

WorkplaceTesting explains Lymphocyte Count

Lymphocytes are essential physiological components of the circulatory system designed to control the degree and extent of infections after contracting a disease or illness. The immune system generates a diversity of lymphocytes, contributing to the interplay of neutralizing antigens in tandem with limiting the inflammatory response. However, some white blood cells carry counterproductive effects when the body reacts to a foreign agent. For example, T cells are secreted in the blood to identify and obliterate antigens while also having the potential to inhibit effective immunity reactions.

From the outset, initial exposure to harmful agents prompts the immune system to develop memory cells, fortifying the body’s capacity to resist invading microorganisms that can disrupt homeostasis. This phenomenon can often influence lymphocyte count where leukocytes fluctuate between high or low ranges. Patients can experience lymphocytopenia (low count) or lymphocytosis (high count) coupled with any number of possible biological and/or epidemiological implications coinciding to their immune system’s capacity to combat diseases and fight infections. For example, autoimmune diseases, human immunodeficiency disease (HIV), and multiple sclerosis are debilitating health conditions linked to lymphocytopenia. Conversely, lymphocytosis can be an indicator of an autoimmune disease or blood disorder.

In the workplace, different fields of industry carry a level of risk that can often reflect the circumstances surrounding a specific job position. For instance, agriculture and healthcare are industries with a high incidence rate of virulent antigens and toxins, predisposing workers to contagious diseases over time. Lymphocyte count is incorporated into a complete blood count (CBC) test that entails a thorough assessment of B cells and T cells to account for low or high deviations.

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