Blood Type ABO

Definition - What does Blood Type ABO mean?

Blood type ABO is the named used for human blood type testing. The body's red blood cells carry antigens that are used for classification of blood type. The blood type ABO test identifies which if any of these antigens is present in a person's blood. If a person has the A antigen, he or she is classified as having type A blood. Individuals with the B antigen are identified as type B, while having both antigens results in a classification of type AB. Individuals with type O blood do not have either the A or B antigen. A separate test, blood type Rh is used to identify the presence or absence of a separate antibody not used for classification.

The four blood types are not all compatible. The antibodies of one blood type will attack antigens of another type. For example, type A antibodies will attack type B antigens and type O antibodies will attack both A and B if these antigens are introduced into the blood stream. But, because type O doesn't have either A or B antigens, type A, type B, and type AB individuals can accept type O transfusions. Thus, before an individual may receive a blood transfusion, his or her blood type must be identified through blood type ABO testing.

The blood type ABO test may also be called an ABO test.

WorkplaceTesting explains Blood Type ABO

Blood groups were first discovered in 1901. Prior to this discovery, individuals receiving transfusions often fell ill or died. Blood groups are an inherited trait. This fact allows researchers to use blood types to track populations and identify genetically related groups. People from different geographic regions and from different ethnic groups have different predominant blood types.

In addition to transfusions, blood type ABO testing may be done before a person undergoes surgery, donates blood, or to identify an individual's relationship to another person. Also, the ABO test may be used to rule out potential organ donors. Blood type identification may be used in forensic investigations to rule out potential suspects.

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